PPAP in Production
The Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) is a standardized process in the automotive and aerospace industries that helps manufacturers and suppliers communicate and approve production designs and processes before, during, and after manufacture.
PPAP is used as a risk classification and qualification process which is used to determine whether a production run will produce parts with consistency and repeatability. PPAP also allows for a clear communication outlet between a customer and supplier.
A PPAP is required when production of a new product or part is planned and when there is any significant change to a product or process. PPAP is an output of Phase 4, Product & Process Validation, of the APQP process. The ongoing use of PPAP ensures risk will be minimized through effective change control.
It is a standard requirement imposed by OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) in the European and North-American auto industry.
Production part approval process is one of the finest ways of ensuring the quality standards of Components supplied and their production process. Production part approval process is prevalent in many manufacturing industries; however, the need was felt by the automotive industry to standardize the process of material and manufacturing quality.
The PPAP requires the manufacture of a sample number of parts on actual production tooling, using the same procedures, personnel, production facility, and all other aspects of the expected production run. This sampling is of some finite number, usually something like 300 pieces. These are then analyzed in several ways to ensure the production run meets all of the requirements the customer requests.
The 18 elements or documents that comprise the PPAP Production are
- Design Records
- Authorized Engineering Change Documents.
- Customer Engineering Approval, if required
- Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA), applied in special situations.
- Process Flow Diagram.
- Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA)
- Control Plan
- Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
- Dimensional Results
- Records of Material / Performance Test Results
- Initial Process Studies
- Qualified Laboratory Documentation
- Appearance Approval Report (AAR)
- Sample Production Parts
- Master Sample
- Checking Aids
- Customer-Specific Requirements
- Part Submission Warrant (PSW)